Full details about Forest Raw Materials

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Full details about Forest Raw Materials.

A forest product is any material derived from a forestry for direct consumption or commercial use, such as lumber (timber), paper, or forage for livestock. Wood, by far the dominant forest product, is used for many purposes, such as wood fuel (e.g. in form of firewood or charcoal) or the finished structural materials used for the construction of buildings , or as a raw material, in the form of wood pulp, that is used in the production of paper . All other non-wood products derived from forest resources, comprising a broad variety of other forest products, are collectively described as non-timber forest products.
Many forest management policies have been implemented that impact forest product economics, including forest access restrictions, harvesting fees, and harvest limits. Deforestation, global warming and other environmental concerns have increasingly affected the availability and sustainability of forest products, as well as the economies of regions dependent upon forestry around the world. In recent years, the idea of sustainable forestry, which aims to preserve crop yields without causing irreversible damage to ecosystem health, has changed the relationship between environmentalists and the forest products industry. Stakeholders in the forest products industry include government departments, commercial enterprises, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), policy-makers and analysts, private and international organizations.
Since 1947, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has published an annual yearbook of forest products. The FAO Yearbook of Forest Products is a compilation of statistical data on basic forest products for all countries and territories of the world. It contains series of annual data on the volume of production and the volume and value of trade in forest products. It includes tables showing direction of trade and average unit values of trade for certain products. Statistical information in the yearbook is based primarily on data provided to the FAO Forestry Department by the countries through questionnaires or official publications. In the absence of official data, FAO makes an estimate based on the best information available.
FAO also publishes an annual survey of pulp and paper production capacities around the world. The survey presents statistics on pulp and paper capacity and production by country and by grade. The statistics are based on information submitted by correspondents worldwide, most of them pulp and paper associations, and represents 85% of the world production of paper and paperboard.

TYPES OF FOREST RAW MATERIALS
Materials derived from a forest for direct consumption or commercial use, such as lumber, paper, or forage for livestock. Wood, by far the dominant forest product, is used for many purposes, such as wood fuel (e.g. in form of firewood or charcoal) or the finished structural materials used for the construction of buildings, or as a raw material, in the form of wood pulp, that is used in the production of paper. All other non-wood products derived from forest resources, comprising a broad variety of other forest products, are collectively described as non-timber forest products.

 PRIMARY PRODUCTS
LUMBER (TIMBER)
Lumber or timber, the raw material for the construction of buildings or furniture making.  This is wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production .Lumber may be supplied either rough- sawn, or surfaced on one or more of its faces. Besides pulpwood, rough lumber is the raw material for furniture making and other items requiring additional cutting and shaping. It is available in many species, usually hardwoods; but it is also readily available in softwoods, such as white pine and red pine, because of their low cost. Finished lumber is supplied in standard sizes, mostly for the construction, industry primarily softwood, from coniferous species, including pine, fir and spruce (collectively spruce-pine-fir), cedar, and hemlock, but also some hardwood, for high-grade flooring. Lumber is mainly used for structural purposes but has many other uses as well. It is classified more commonly as a softwood than as a hardwood, because 80% of lumber comes from softwood.

PAPER
This is made from wood pulp derived from the timber stock pulpwood. Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets. It is a versatile material with many uses, including writing, printing, packaging, cleaning, and a number of industrial and construction processes.
The pulp papermaking process is said to have been developed in China during the early 2nd century AD, possibly as early as the year 105 A.D., by the Han court eunuch Cai Lun, although the earliest archaeological fragments of paper derive from the 2nd century BC in China. The modern pulp and paper industry is global, with China leading its production and the United States right behind it.
Two processes in paper making are the
Chemical process and the
Mechanical process

PAPERBOARD
Paperboard is a thick packaging material derived from paper, cardboard is the generic term. Paperboard is a thick paper -based material. While there is no rigid differentiation between paper and paperboard, paperboard is generally thicker (usually over 0.25 mm, 0.010 in, or 10 points) than paper.
According to ISO standards, paperboard is a paper with a gram above 224 g/m 2, but there are exceptions. Paperboard can be single or multi-ply. Paperboard can be easily cut and formed, is lightweight, and because it is strong, is used in packaging. Another end-use would be graphic printing, such as book and magazine covers or postcards. Sometimes it is referred to as cardboard, which is a generic, lay term used to refer to any heavy paper pulp based board. Paperboard is also used in fine arts for creating sculptures.

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VENEER
In woodworking, veneer refers to thin slices of wood, usually thinner than 3 mm (1/8 inch), that typically are glued onto core panels (typically wood, particle board or medium-density fiberboard ) to produce flat panels such as doors, tops and panels for cabinets , parquet floors and parts of furniture. They are also used in marquetry. Plywood consists of three or more layers of veneer, each glued with its grain at right angles to adjacent layers for strength. Veneer beading is a thin layer of decorative edging placed around objects, such as jewelry boxes. Veneer is also used to replace decorative papers. Veneer is also a type of manufactured board.
Veneer is obtained either by “peeling” the trunk of a tree or by slicing large rectangular blocks of wood known as flitches.

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FIBREBOARD
Fiberboard – a cheaper and denser form of plywood, used when cost is considered most important. Often used as the underlying structure in car dashboards. Fibreboard is a type of engineered wood product that is made out of wood fibers. Types of fiberboard (in order of increasing density) include particle board, medium density fibreboard, and hardboard. Fibreboard is sometimes used as a synonym for particle board, but particle board usually refers to low density fibreboard. Plywood is not a type of fibreboard, as it is made of thin sheets of wood, not wood fibres or particles. Fibreboard, particularly medium density fibreboard (MDF), is heavily used in the furniture industry. For pieces that will be visible, a veneer of wood is often glued onto fibreboard to give it the appearance of conventional wood. Fibreboard is also used in the automotive industry to create free-form shapes such as dashboards, rear parcel shelves, and inner door shells. These pieces are usually covered with a skin, foil, or fabric such as cloth, suede, leather, or polyvinyl chloride.

DRYWALL
Drywall is a gypsum plaster placed inside two sheets of paper, used commonly as the finishing step in construction of interior walls and ceilings. Drywall (also known as plasterboard, wallboard, gypsum board) is a panel made of gypsum plaster pressed between two thick sheets of paper. It is used to make interior walls and ceilings. Drywall construction became prevalent as a speedier alternative to traditional lath and plaster wood plastic composite made from recycled materials. Wood-plastic composites (WPCs) are composite materials made of wood fibre, wood flour and thermoplastics. Chemical additives seem practically “invisible” (except mineral fillers and pigments, if added) in the composite structure. They provide for integration of polymer and wood flour (powder) while facilitating optimal processing conditions.

 SECONDARY PRODUCTS

FIREWOOD
Firewood is any wooden material that is gathered and used for fuel. Firewood is the most unprocessed form of wood fuel, supplies the majority of the developing world’s energy needs. Generally, firewood is not highly processed and is in some sort of recognizable log or branch form, compared to other forms of wood fuel like pellets or chips. Firewood can be seasoned (dry) or unseasoned (fresh/wet). It can be classed as hardwood or softwood. Firewood is a renewable resource. However, demand for this fuel can outpace its ability to regenerate on local and regional level. Good forestry practices and improvements in devices that use firewood can improve the local wood supplies.

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PELLETS
Pellets – a byproduct from sawmilling, is formed from compacted sawdust, easy to transport and has a high combustion efficiency. Pellet fuels (or pellets) are biofuels made from compressed organic matter or biomass. Pellets can be made from any one of five general categories of biomass: industrial waste and co-products, food waste, agricultural residues, energy crops, and virgin lumber. Wood pellets are the most common type of pellet fuel and are generally made from compacted sawdust and related industrial wastes from the milling of lumber, manufacture of wood products and furniture , and construction .[ citation needed ] Other industrial waste sources include empty fruit bunches, palm kernel shells, coconut shells, and tree tops and branches discarded during logging operations.
They can be used as fuels for power generation, commercial or residential heating, and cooking.


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